Brendel Models

The models called ” models Brendel ” (the family name of their manufacturers) are models or models of high aesthetic quality, science and technology, imitating and with so greatly enlarged some taxa or bodies plants considered representative of the great floristic groups : Algae , Bryophytes , ferns , angiosperms , as well as some fungi selected in the fungal kingdom (mycology was once part of botany).

Dedicated to the teaching of botany and mycology , they are often partly removable.

It is found in some universities , including the University of Strasbourg , Lille , Lyon-1 , Rennes , Burgundy (which inherited a collection of models for war damage following the First World War). world ) … and the University of Dijon where these models are still used to teach Botany). The University of Florence 1 , Liverpool and the Smithsonian Institute also have one.


These three – dimensional models responded to the needs of Biology teaching in the field of botany and mycology .

These “models” were all made by Robert Brendel and his son Reinhold ( 1861 – 1927 ) in Germany, sometimes in almost industrial series in Breslau and then (from 1902 ) in Grunewald near Berlin .

The naturalistic collections of the University of Lille 1 conserve about 140 (out of about 200 products 2 ).


While the most beautiful and accurate anatomical models were rather made in wax , using so-called techniques of ceroplasty , this technique being unsuitable for the reproduction of petals, thin leaves, etc., the Brendel models are made of paper mache , wood , canvas , rattan , pulp of cane , glass beads , feathers ; painted in oil .

Notes and references

  1. ↑ Fiorini, G., L. Maekawa, and P. Stiberc. 2007. “Collezione Brendel” di modelli di fiori ed altri organi vegetali del Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale dell’Università degli Studi di Firenze. Museologia Scientifica 22 (2): 249-273
  2. ↑ The exact number of models made is uncertain, but there are catalogs (eg Catalog published by R. Brendel in 1893)

See also

On other Wikimedia projects:

  • Brendel models , on Wikimedia Commons
Brendel mycological model, with a parasitic fungus of plants, of the genus Aecidium ( Aecidium berberidis )
Example of magnification from a microscopic size ( Aspergillus )

Related Articles

  • Botanical
  • Mycology
  • Teaching Botany
  • botanists
  • Anatomical model
  • Adolf Zeigler (1820-1889)
  • naturalist collection
  • Collection of references
  • Photographs of anatomical models at the Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze(section Zoology of the Museum of the Specola ), Italy.

External links

  • History of models [ archive ] , UFR Plant Biology, University of Dijon.
  • Video  [ archive ] presentation

Exhibitions, conferences …

  • Exhibition “Botany: between art and science”, in Montbard, Buffon Museum


  • Brendel R (1893) List of models concerning vegetable morphology . Berlin: Unger Brothers
  • Brendel R (1894) Neue botanische Modelle der Verlags-Anstalt für Lehrmittel , no. 8. Recently issued models for botanical instruction, no. 9. Berlin: Unger Brothers.
  • Kronsteiner, O. (2009). Der naturwissenschaftliche Blick: Fotografie, Zeichnung und Modell im 19. Jahrhundert . Simon Weber-Unger, 82 pages ( Google book link  [ archive ] ) See illustrations, p.  45 to 48.
  • Ostermaier, J., Brendel, R., Papenhelm, C., & Bitter, G. (1927). Tropenstipendiumm-Botaniker  [ archive ] .
  • Anna Giatti, Giancarlo Lanterna, and Carlo Lalli (2004) analisi diagnostica su alcuni modelli didattici della fondazione Sciencza e technica di Firenze  [ archive ] ; OPD Restauro o 16, p.  143-149 , 205 Ed .: Centro Di Della Edifimi SRL (8 p)

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