In the Catholic religion , the Christmas crib is staged in various three-dimensional arts (mainly sculpture and theater) of the Nativity , that is, the birth of Jesus of Nazareth , in the form of immutable characters, with in the first place the Holy Family and especially the Child Jesus in the manger (which means a manger ) of a stable or a cave. This original iconography is gradually enriched with different scenic formulas, characters ( shepherds , angels , Magi) and animals (oxen, donkey, sheep, camels) surrounding the naked Child Jesus in his trough, cradle or straw. The Christmas crib can be static, mechanical or living . Construction or occasional and transient representation, associated traditionally with the Christmas parties , it is more rarely a permanent and irremovable reproduction.
According to the tradition of hagiography Franciscan, the living nativity scenes are developing in Europe from xiii th century as part of one of the salient aspects of the theology of the Friars Minor , the Christocentrism , following the completion of a crib living by Francis of Assisi in Greccio , Italy , Christmas Eve 1223 . At the end of the 16th century century, the Jesuits, aware of the power of the celebration of the Nativity, multiply in Christendom creches model reduced as we know them today, using catechesis in the context of the Counter-Reformation .
Christmas cribs allow the popular piety to express itself during liturgical or pariturgical ceremonies . As part of the secularization of Christmas , crèches are not only exposed in churches but also in homes and public buildings. Out of desire for ostentation and outbidding, the shopping centers add local elements derived from legends or folklore that vary according to the degree of inculturation or dechristianization , or even comic characters. These practices may come up against secularism and lead to controversies around nurseries .
The feminine noun 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 “crib” is a loan 1 to the former low franc 1 , 2 * krippia 2 , 4 , or * krippja 1 , related to the Germanic * kribjon 2 which gave Krippe in German, kribbe in Dutch, krybbe in Danish, crib in English.
The Italian words presepe and presepio 5 are derived from the Latin term of the Vulgate , praesepe or praesepium (from prae , “before” and saepire , “girdle”, this term originally designating the animal pen). The Spanish belén 6has been derived from Bethlehem .
Taken absolutely, the Crib, or Santa Crib, is the manger for animals in which, according to the Gospel according to Luke ( Lc 2,16 ), the Child Jesus was deposited after his birth 2 .
Origins of the manger and figurative elements that compose it
The Stable of the Gospel Story
According to the Gospel according to St. Luke ( Lk 2,8-20 ), Jesus was born in a stable because his parents did not find a suitable space N 1 in the καταλυματι ( kataluma , “high room, living room ” 7 ), a term that does not translate into N 2 with” hotel “,” inn “or” caravanserai relay “but more likely refers to the chamber for the hosts, suggesting that the Holy Family was staying with relatives 8 , 9 . The gospel uses the Greek term φάτνῃ , “phatnê”, translated into Latin in the Vulgateby praesepium which designates the barn on the lower floor of an Israelite house or in the open air in its courtyard (an average family sheltering at night a donkey, a cow or a few sheep), but also the stall of a stable, the rack or the feeder according to the principle of ” pars pro toto ” 10 . Mary placed Jesus in this place, probably adjoined to the kataluma, without the gospel indicating whether it is a stone trough N 3 surmounted by a wooden rack intended to carry the cattle forage like the11 . The most that can be regarded as providing the stable heat and discretion necessary for childbirth while the B & B was full or too small 12 . The manger for animals is designated by the Frankish * krippia, Latin cripia , which comes from the word “crib” which refers specifically from the xiii th century the manger where Christ was filed at birth 13 .
The cave of the paleochristian tradition
The legendary theme of the birth in a cave develops ii th century, first in the Dialogue with Tryphon 78.5 of the apologist and philosopher Christian Justin Martyr and the Proto-Gospel of Jacques , suggesting the existence early enough from a local tradition on the precise place of birth 14 . The hillside houses could indeed house a barn in a cave 15 . The Church of the Nativity is also built in the iv th century over several caves 16.
The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew the viii th century combines the version of the cave and of the manger: the journey of the parents is interrupted by order of an angel invites Mary to enter a cave which flows a miraculous light who shines during his whole birth. Two days after the birth, Mary leaves the cave, enters a stable and places the child in a manger, the ox and the donkey adoring it 17 , N 4 . The tradition of the association of these two animals dates back to the Book of Isaiah ( Es 1,3 ) 18 .
Adoration by Shepherds and the Magi
The Gospel according to St. Matthew ( Mt 2,11 ) tells that the Magi worship the child in Bethlehem itself, in an oikos (“household”, domus of the Vulgate). The allegory of the three present (incense, myrrh and gold) is taken up by the Apocrypha. Pseudo-Matthew gives each Magi, in addition to traditional gifts, a piece of gold 19 .
The Golden Legend manages to mix all these elements, evoking the ox, the only head of Joseph’s cattle that he took to sell, the donkey serving as a mount for the Virgin and juxtaposes to six words distance, the domus of Matthew and the praesepium of Luke 20 .
The story of the nativity scene and the adoration of shepherds and magi must not be read literally, but belongs to the literary register of the marvelous and the metaphorical theology . Indeed, the stories of the childhood of Jesus of Matthew and Luke “pose many literary and historical problems, as their writing appears late, rather the marvelous in the manner of the childhood stories of the Judeo-Hellenistic world. ” 21 . In addition, the triple mention of the child “lying in a manger” (verse 7, 12 and 16) is a literary effect 22. Besides the wonderful symbolism of the manger or cave is a reminder of the count and the humble surroundings of the place of Christ’s birth, taking the theological reason for the self-emptying 23 .
The representations of the Nativity cribs with over the centuries
The oldest representations of the Nativity are from early Christian art . They are essentially frescoes and bas-reliefs dating from the iii th century and especially the iv th and v th centuries 24 .
The introduction of the Christmas party in the High Middle Ages
In the Church of St. Mary of the Incarnation of Jesus, now St. Mary Major in Rome , we know that Christmas celebration is commemorated during the night of December 25 from the iv th century . Indeed, the date of December 25 was fixed as the date of the birth of the divine at that time . The debates that led to this decision made it possible to develop a religious practice around this event.
From the vi th century , the ancient writings, such as the Liber Pontificalis , report that the celebration of Christmas night unfolded ad Praesepe in the church of St. Mary in Rome, which literally means “around the crib,” but this place probably designated the “oratory of the N 5 manger . “Small chapel a few meters from the basilica recalling by its layout and its relics the cave of Bethlehem 25 .
The Franciscan naturalism of the late Middle Ages
It is likely that from the xii th century that the festival celebrates the Epiphany with worship the infant Jesus by the three Wise Men, Caspar, Melchior and Balthazar. It is in this second current of devotion that St. Francis of Assisi stands.
A persistent legend, Francis has created in Greccio in Italy , on Christmas night 1223 the first live nativity scene while the scenes were already played for centuries by actors N 6 in the mysteries of the Nativity in churches then on their forecourt, animated paintings at the origin of the nurseries shows 27 . The hagiographic tradition recalls, but without real historical certainty N 7 , that Francis of Assisi, after being impressed by his visit to the basilica of the Nativity of Bethlehem, wants to reproduce the scene of the Nativity when this basilica is no longer accessible to pilgrims as a result of the failure of the Fifth Crusade . He uses a manger filled with hay, a donkey and a real ox in a cave (called “Chapel of the Crib”) of the area where the Friars Minor had established the hermitage of Greccio (it) hanging on the side of the mountain, with the cooperation of the lord of the village Jean Velita de Greccio 28 . The originality of Francis of Assisi is celebrated to have a nativity scene in a more evocative natural setting combining the villagers of Greccio who have experienced the “Nativity” and feel to embody the characters of biblical writings 29. Thomas of Celano, the first biographer of Francis reports that Francis preached during Christmas Mass, and that one of the assistants sees lean toward the crib and take a child in her arms 30 . In Greccio there is still a Franciscan hermitage commemorating this first living nativity scene. Later, a real child is sometimes placed in the manger. Little by little, according to the Franciscan tradition which gives an inordinate importance to the importance of the Christmas of Greccio in 1223 and its consequences 31 , the custom spreads, under the influence of Claire of Assisiand Franciscan preachers, especially in Franciscan oratory in Provence and Italy, as living cribs but also cribs manufactured with great figures of wood or clay and could be exposed longer 32 . These figurines then have the purpose of materializing the image of Christ and his parents to illiterate populations.
The oldest monumental crib and nonliving known date of 1252 at the Franciscan monastery in Fussen Bavaria 33 . This is a permanent crib that contains characters of different sizes in wood. In the Santa Maria Maggiore is retained the first permanent manger made of stone 1288, following control of the Pope Nicolas IV sculptor Arnolfo di Cambio a Nativity representation 34 . These permanent reproductions of the Nativity develop particularly in Tuscany , Umbria and especially in Campania with theNeapolitan cribs made by German sculptors and appearing in churches in xiv th century and in the aristocratic family of Naples the following centuries 35 .
The Jesuitical fashion Baroque
In the xv th and xvi th centuries, the faithful in churches can lull the “rest of Jesus” by pulling the ribbon attached to these cradles 36 . In the xv th century, as part of the progress of the watches appear mechanical cribs that become popular in the xvii th century in Europe, as the Vertep Russian 37 .
The first nurseries resembling those we know (occasional and transient staging of the Nativity no longer on paintings, frescoes, mosaics or bas-reliefs but with “independent” statues) appear in the churches and convents at xvi th century , especially in Italy, replacing the previous formulas 29 . The first historically documented miniature crib dates from 1562 in Prague 38 . Especially the Jesuits who spread the miniature cribs (cheaper to make and easily transportable) in monastic churches throughout Christendom, using it to catechesis as part of the Counter-Reformation 39. Domestic crib gradually diffuse (the first documented is that of the Duchess of Amalfi Constanza Piccolomini di Aragona in 1567 40 ), monks in producing this purpose small wax figures dressed with precious clothes 32 . The great Neapolitan cribs (decorated with wooden statues with glass eyes, dismantled and rebuilt every year) style baroque know their heyday in the xviii th century 41 .
In France, the first mechanized nursery known is that created in Marseille , in 1775 , by a man named Laurent 42 . It is made up of articulated mannequins dressed in local costumes. To add a touch of exoticism, the designer has placed giraffes , reindeer and hippopotamuses . Jean-Paul Clébert says:”At the time of the Concordat, Laurent even showed a carriage advancing towards the barn; the pope descended from it, followed by the cardinals. Before them was kneeling the whole Holy Family and the pope gave him his blessing. During the adoration of the shepherds, a curtain rose, revealing the sea on which a warship was sailing. A gun salute greeted the infant Jesus, suddenly awakened, opened his eyes, shuddered and waved his arms ” 43 .
The extension of a domestic ritual since the Revolution
After the period of the Revolution during which this religious practice is banned, nurseries multiply in the homes of wealthy families in the form of glass boxes N 8 called “caves” or “rock” appeared in the xvii th century figurines, made of wax, breadcrumbs or spun glass, appear in a rock decoration (animal cascades, paper flowers and glass frits, mirror fragments depicting lakes and water jets) evoking paradise 44 . At the beginning of xix th Century, the crib returns to the streets of France mainly in the form of mechanical automata that feature grotesque characters. Provencal cribs with their ” santons ” (Provençal santoun, “little saints” smaller and more rustic with multiplication of characters in their local costume representing all the trades of the time in a naive style), develop not only in the churches but also in private houses from 1803 , just after the Concordat of 1802 45 .
The democratization of domestic nurseries is favored in xix th century by mass production of painted plaster figurines and dissemination by the merchants of religious objects, materials, techniques and scenography (nursery-cabinet, hut, “Mont Nativity N 9 “) knowing a great variety. This popularization corresponds to the golden age of the sulpician style crib between 1860 and 1920 46 .
In the xx th century, the tradition of the Christmas crib has developed worldwide as the process of inculturation 35 .
In 2016, religious tensions in France arouse controversies related to the Christmas party and bring the Council of State to rule on the possibility of putting a crib in a public building 47 .
Types of nurseries
- Baroque Crèche : created xvii th century when nurseries are starting to decorate aristocratic residences in Baroque style.
- Neapolitan crib : it appears from the Trecento ( xiv th century Italian) in the south of Italy and religious buildings expose to the veneration of the faithful; the characters are richly ornate colored statues sometimes reaching human size. In the xviii th century , in Naples , she knows a true collective passion. Typically Baroque, the decor and its characters are characterized by a formal realism.
- Genoese crib : it knows its golden age in the xviii th century and stands out with a production of wooden figurines.
- Provencal crib : it is inspired by local life. The craftsmen evoke characters typical of the region or the village or the deceased of the family. It dates from the xviii th century . Added toMarseille are santons (” santoun “, “little saints” in Provençal ) which represent small known trades: the miller , the grinder , the washerwoman , etc.
- Grandfather Crèche : popular theater born in the end of the xviii th century . Like the Provencal crib, it invites around the Holy Family characters from the Franche-Comté societyof the time.
- Living nativity scene : public performance, or nursery that contains real characters. A famous representation of the kind held in Matera , Italy, which hosts the largest nativity scene in the world 48 . In France, a living crib in Occitan is played at the Abbey of Saint – Ferme (33).
- Giant and animated nursery-theaters : these are the Christmas cribs that were presented in Paris Place de l’Hotel de Ville for 17 years (up to 173,000 visitors in 31 days ). Paul Chaland has produced these Christmas cribs with the artists of each country: Venice, Sicily, Andes, Old Paris, Assisi (François d ‘), Sun (Provence), wonderful manger. The performances of these Christmas cribs are signed by great authors: Michel Tournier , Yvan Audouard , Christian Bobin , Vincenzo Consolo , Gaston Bonheur , Régine Pernoud , the music of Guy Béart ,Roberto De Simone , Giovanni Batista Malipierro , the voices of prestigious actors have been recorded: Claudia Cardinale , Marcello Mastroianni , Laurent Terzieff . The shows are automated; the computer controls the lights, the sound, the automatons. These nurseries are 18 meters wide, 5 meters deep, 4 meters high, have between 100 and 220 characters , and 15 to 50 automata with changes of scenery at sight. The largest and most amazing collection of Christmas cribs in the world.
Composition of a manger
In the Neapolitan tradition, the decor was made up of the ruins of a Roman temple , symbol of the end of the ancient civilization before the rise of Christendom. More commonly, the nursery takes place in a cave or barn.
In Christian churches, the crib is usually installed in the days before the Nativity celebration while in the homes, its installation varies by region ( first Sunday of Advent , feast of the Immaculate Conception , Saint Lucia , Saint-Nicolas , etc.), or even according to the families 49 .
The baby Jesus is usually placed in the center at midnight on December 24 to symbolize his birth, supervised by Mary and Joseph . They are accompanied by a donkey, carrying Mary pregnant and an ox that, according to tradition, warmed the newborn of his breath. It is notable that the Virgin Mary is very often represented on her knees before her Son and in her ordinary clothes when she has just given birth, meaning that she has not suffered the exhaustion usually associated with childbirth. Shepherds accompanied by their lambs are also placed in the manger, since it is to them that the news of the birth of Christ was first announced. In France,, the scene may include other people, including contemporary characters or crafts.
By installing the crib, some people place the empty manger at the beginning, and add the figurine representing Christ only in the night of the 24th to the 25th.
It is common to put a star at the top of a manger. This star recalls the one that, according to the scriptures, guided the three Magi ( Gaspard, Melchior and Balthazar , who symbolize all the peoples of the earth) adorned with their biblical garments, to the manger. They can be accompanied by exotic animals used as horses (a horse, an elephant and a camel). Some people place them only from Epiphany ; others put them in another part of the house and move them gradually towards the manger.
The use of showing an angel among the characters in the manger is also widespread.
In the Christian tradition, the crib is removed on February 2, the day of presentation of Jesus at the Temple of Jerusalem or just after the feast of the Epiphany 49 .
Christian Symbolic of the Nativity Scene
The crib is for Christians a representation of the meaning of Christmas 50 . First, it is a historical reminder of the birth of Christ and the circumstances of his coming to the world in a manger in Bethlehem . It expresses the sense of the birth of Jesus comes to dwell among men (in their homes and in their heart) by his Incarnation 51 . The crib in all its forms is reminiscent of God’s message of love for humanity who sends his only son to redeem it. The characters in the crib also have historical and symbolic significance.
The shepherds guarding their sheep in the distance and are the first to come to adore Jesus 52 recall the inner poverty of the human condition and the fact that Jesus came for all men, first the simplest place 53 . Shepherds can also symbolize the possibility of a direct relationship to God with the birth of his son without the need for an intermediary.
Finally, the mages that are placed in the nursery on the occasion of the feast of the Epiphany echo the psalm 71 of the Old Testament “The kings of Tarsis and Islands will bring presents, the kings of Saba and Seba will make their offering . They symbolize the universal reach of the message of Christmas to all men 54 and the movement of “seekers of God” to the child of the manger. For Joseph Ratzinger “Like the shepherds who, as first hosts to the Newborn Infant in the manger, personify the poor of Israel and, in general, the humble souls who live inwardly by being very close to Jesus, so the men from the East personify the world of the peoples, the Church of the Gentiles, the men who, through all ages, march towards the Child of Bethlehem, honor in him the Son of God and prostrate themselves before him ” 55 .
Notes and references
- ↑ Greek τόπος , topos , “space instead.”
- ↑ The gospel uses the term pandocheion to describe this business establishment.
- ↑ Trough dug in the ground or in the wall.
- ↑ On the prehistoric sanctuaries moyenorientaux (post Natufian , -8000) organizing a cult around the donkey and the ox, cf. Jacques Cauvin (en) , Neolithic Religions of Syria-Palestine , Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient , Paris , 1972, quoted in Ch. Schreider, The first ceramic looking at the pebbles. [ archive ] , The New Obs , p. 45 , Paris , 20 September 1976.
- ↑ At the xvi th century, Pope Sixtus V did transfer this chapel in the crypt of the Nativity in the choir of the basilica. The crypt contains a reliquary sheltering the main relics of the Nativity (five wooden planks of the “Saint-Cradle” probably from the Nativity Basilica and a baby Jesus’ lange) reported according to the tradition of the Holy Land. by the pilgrims. Source: Elphège Vacandard , Critical Studies and Religious History , Lecoffre,, p. 44.
- ↑ The latter sometimes using tables and figurative representations to replace them.
- ↑ Greccio and tradition nurseries [ archive ] .
- ↑ Example of a “cave” clay under a glass bell. Collection of the Einsiedeln Convent [ archive ] .
- ↑ Superposition of biblical scenes on a rock.
- ↑ a , b , c and d Entry “Crib” [ archive ] in the Dictionary of the French Academy , on the website of the National Center for Textual and Lexical Resources [accessed December 17, 2016].
- ↑ a , b , c , d and e lexicographical [ archival ] and etymological definitions [ archive ] of “nursery” of the Computerized French Treasury , on the website of the National Center for Textual and Lexical Resources [accessed December 17, 2016] .
- ↑ Entrance ” crib ” [ archive ] , in Émile Littré , Dictionary of the French language , t. 1: A – C , Paris, Hachette ,, LIX-944 p. , gr. in-4 o (Form BNF n o FRBNF30824717 , read online [ Archive ] [facsimile]) , p. 887( facsimile [ archive ] ) [accessed December 17, 2016].
- ↑ a and b Entry ” crib ” [ archive ] , on French dictionaries [online] , Larousse [accessed December 17, 2016].
- ↑ ( it ) Entry ” crib ” [ archive ] , bilingual Dictionary French-Italian [online] , Larousse [accessed December 17, 2016].
- ↑ ( es ) Entry ” crib ” [ archive ] , on bilingual French-Spanish dictionary [online] , Larousse [accessed December 17,2016].
- ↑ ( en ) House of a middle-class family with the kataluma [ archive ] , archeology in ancient Israel .
- ↑ René Laurentin , The Gospels of Christ’s childhood. Christmas Truth Beyond Myths: Exegesis and Semiotics, Historicity and Theology , Desclee,, p. 225.
- ↑ ( in ) Gerald L. Borchert, Jesus of Nazareth. Background, Witnesses, and Significance , Mercer University Press,, p. 124.
- ↑ ( of ) Karl-Heinrich Bieritz, Das Kirchenjahr. Feste, Gedenk- und Feiertage in Geschichte und Gegenwart , Überarbeitete Auflage,, p. 199.
- ↑ ( in ) Kenneth Bailey, ” The Manger and the Inn ” , Bible and Spade , vol. 20, n o 4,, p. 104-105.
- ↑ Léopold Sabourin, The Gospel of Luke: Introduction and Commentary , Gregorian Biblical BookShop,, p. 91.
- ↑ crèche [ archive ] , National Center for Textiles and Lexical Resources .
- ↑ Pierre Maraval , holy sites and pilgrimages East: history and geography origins to the Arab conquest , Stag,, p. 32.
- ↑ Yves Teyssier d’Orfeuil, Bethlehem 2000 years of history , Desclée Brouwer,, p. 51.
- ↑ Origen , Contra Celsum , Book I, Chapter LI.
- ↑ André Malet, Christmas The Gospels: myth or reality? , The Age of Man,, p. 79.
- ↑ Edmond Jacob, Isa 1-12 , Labor and Agenzia,, p. 43.
- ↑ Christian Montésinos , sacred mythology elements the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in France , Editions de la Hutte,, p. 72
- ↑ Jacques de Voragine , The Golden Legend , Flammarion,, p. 92.
- ↑ Charles Perrot , ” The stories of the childhood of Jesus [ archive ] ,” in Archeology records , 1999 – 2000, n o 249, p. 100-105 .
- ↑ François Bovon, The Gospel according Luc (1.1 to 9.50) , Labor and Agenzia,, p. 126.
- ↑ Numa Recolin, The kenosis of Jesus Christ , TheoTeX,, p. 14.
- ↑ ( in ) Andre Grabar, Early Christian Art, AD 200-395 , Odyssey,, p. 99.
- ↑ ( it ) Pietro Gargano, He presepio: otto secoli di storia, arte, tradizione , Fenice 2000,, p. 45.
- ↑ Alain Buisine The first table: the legend of St. Francis of Assisi and painters , Presses Univ. north,, p. 62.
- ↑ Françoise Lautman, Nurseries and Christmas traditions , Editions of the RMN,, p. 39.
- ↑ Alain Buisine The first table: the legend of St. Francis of Assisi and painters , Presses Univ. north,, p. 60.
- ↑ a and b Sandra La Rocca, the child Jesus: History and Anthropology of devotion in the Christian West , Presses Univ. of Mirail, ( read online [ archive ] ) , p. 42.
- ↑ Thomas of Celano, First Life , ch.30, n o 84-87. .
- ↑ ( in ) Rudolf Berliner, Die Weihnachtskrippe , Prestel Verlag,, p. 28.
- ↑ a and b ( en ) Kathleen Manning, ” Who invented the nativity scene? ” , US Catholic , Vol. 77, n o 12,, p. 46.
- ↑ Maria Skrzeczkowska, Patrick Botella, Nurseries of the world: a world of crèches , Éditions Cheminements,, p. 50.
- ↑ Patrick Botella Nurseries world. A world of nurseries , Éditions Cheminements,, p. 51.
- ↑ a and b Claude Quétel , Christmas cribs from all over the world , Ouest-France,, 128 p..
- ↑ Edmond Niffle-Anciaux, the rest of Jesus and reliquaries cradles , A. Wesmael-Charlier, 64 p..
- ↑ Laurence Guillon, ” The Russian nativity scene: an art born of faith ” [ archive ] , on egliserusse.eu,.
- ↑ ( in ) Alfred Lewis Shoemaker, Christmas in Pennsylvania. A Folk-Cultural Study , Stackpole Books,, p. 142.
- ↑ Marie-Pascale Mallé, Dreaming Christmas to the manger in Europe , National Museums,, p. 17.
- ↑ ( in ) Matthew Powell, The Christmas Creche: Treasure of Faith, Art, and Theater , Pauline Books & Media,, p. 84.
- ↑ ( it ) Franco Mancini, he presepe napoletano: scritti testimonianze e dal XVIII al secolo 1955 , Societá Editrice Napoletana, p. 191.
- ↑ Gabrielle Castellari, The beautiful history of Marseille , Don Bosco Technical School,, p. 245.
- ↑ Jean-Paul Clébert, op. cit. , p. LXIV.
- ↑ Françoise Lautman, op. quoted, p. 61.
- ↑ Régis Bertrand, The Nativity and Christmas time: seventeenth-twentieth century , Publ. from the University of Provence,, p. 202.
- ↑ Françoise Lautman, op. cited, p.126.
- ↑ State Council, November 9, 2016, Departmental Federation of Freethinkers of Seine-et-Marne
- ↑ ” The Italian city of Matera hosts the largest living nativity scene in the world ” [ archive ] , on fr.radiovaticana.va,.
- ↑ a and b Jean Hani , Symbolism of the Christian temple , La Colombe,, p. 163.
- ↑ Why and how do you do a nursery? [ archive ]
- ↑ Incarnation [ archive ]
- ↑ Shepherds and their lambs in the Christmas crib [ archive ]
- ↑  [ archive ]
- ↑ With the mages, follow the star! [ archive ]
- ↑ The Magi, God researchers [ archive ]